Artificial intelligence (AI) or sometimes called machine intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, mostly computer systems. It could also be defined as a branch of computer science that specializes in the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans, these human like activities include speech recognition, problem solving, planning, learning, reasoning, ability to manipulate and move etc.
Artificial intelligence was believed to be fictional and common story telling devices in antiquity. Movies had a fair share with characters such as Frankenstein, heartless tin man and Universal soldiers. These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence. By the 1950s a generation of scientists, philosophers and mathematicians had already been studying Artificial intelligence.
One of such was British polymath Alan Turing. He explored the mathematical possibilities of artificial intelligence and suggested that by shifting symbols as simple as “0” and “1”, a computer can stimulate any process of formal reasoning. This was known as the Church-Turing thesis. In 1943, formal designs for Turing-complete artificial neurons were made by McCullouch and Pitts. This was the first work that is now generally recognized as Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth college in 1956.
The founders and leaders of AI research, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John Mcarthy, Marvis Minsky and Arthur Samuel were all attendees of the Dartmouth college Workshop. They and thier students produced programs that the press described as astonishing. By 1959 computers were playing checkers better than humans, by 1956 computers solved world problems in algebra, proving logical theorems and speaking English.
In the late 1990s Artificial Intelligence began to be used for logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and a host of others. In 1997, Deep blue became the first computer playing system to beat a reigning world chess champion, Garry Kasparov. By 2011 technology leaps in hardware and software paved the way for artificial intelligence to enter our everyday lives, digital assistants like Apple’s Siri gained a lot of popularity.
Artificial Intelligence can be classified into three main systems; analytical, human-inspired and humanitized artificial Intelligence. The fields of Artificial intelligence include computer science, information engineering, mathematics, linguistics, philosophy, psychology and a host of others. Artificial Intelligence is now considered by some to be whatever hasn’t been done yet. In the 21st century artificial intelligence techniques have become an integral part of the technology industry, helping to solve problems in computer science, software engineering and operations research.
Artificial Intelligence is important in any intellectual task. They are relevant in practically every area of expertise, which include autonomous vehicles such as drones and fast driving cars, medical diagnosis, search engines such as Google, assistants such as siri, image recognition in photographs etc.